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Organizational Socialization and the Profession of Management

Originally published in 1968, Edgar Schein's article examined the process by which a new member adapts to the value system of an organization. It pointed out that both nonconformity and overconformity to an organization's norms present their own dangers.

In an afterword to this republished article, Schein reflects on the paradoxes that have arisen in the field of organizational development in the past twenty years. Some experts now argue that corporate culture should encourage diversity; others argue that it should stress loyalty (in a sense, nonconformity versus overconformity). Schein himself defends a less "canned" approach: accept the culture that exists and make the best of it.

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