Designed for Learning: A Tale of Two Auto Plants
The Toyota-GM joint venture, NUMMI, and Volvo's Uddevalla plant represent two different ways of organizing the labor-intensive production of standardized products, in this case, auto assembly. NUMMI is based on the Japanese "lean production" model, whereas Uddevalla has been called a "human-centered" model. Which model can best simulate continuous improvement while maintaining worker morale? The authors argue that the answer is, emphatically, NUMMI.